Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in the body. It helps to regulate more than 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. It’s crucial for bone health and development, as well as muscle contraction and nerve function. Magnesium also plays a role in converting food into energy, helping to maintain normal blood sugar levels, and regulating blood pressure (1). More than half of magnesium is stored in bone and the rest is found in soft tissues throughout the body (2).
Magnesium is present in a wide range of foods, including green leafy vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and legumes. It is also available in a variety of different forms as a supplement. Magnesium Citrate is a form of magnesium that’s bound with citric acid. It is easily absorbed and is great for those with rectal or colon issues due to its natural laxative effect.
In the UK, the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for magnesium is 300 milligrams/day for men and 270 mg/day for women. While the levels vary depending on age, the British Nutrition Foundation suggestions can be found in table 1 (3).
Table 1. Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Magnesium (3)
*The RNI during pregnancy may vary, please consult your healthcare practitioner
When magnesium levels are low, the body helps preserve its stores by limiting the amount excreted in urine and absorbing more in the intestines (2). However, low intakes and certain health conditions can cause magnesium deficiency for example those with chronic alcohol abuse, type 2 diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders (1). Deficiency symptoms include nausea and vomiting, muscle cramps, fatigue, poor appetite, and seizures (2). Older adults may also be at risk of magnesium deficiency.
High doses of magnesium citrate may produce a laxative effect and can help with occasional constipation.
If pregnant or breastfeeding, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product. Magnesium may interact with certain medications such as Antibiotics, Bisphosphonates, Proton Pump Inhibitors and Diuretics as they may affect absorption rates so if on medication, consult your doctor before use (1).
Epigenetics Magnesium Citrate is produced in a convenient, vegan friendly capsule. Recommended daily dose is 1 serving per day taken with a meal, or as directed by a healthcare practitioner. This product is not intended to be used as an alternative to a varied diet.
||Amount per serving
|Magnesium (from Magnesium citrate)
* Percent Daily Reference Intakes (RI) are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
INGREDIENTS: Magnesium citrate, Vegetable capsule (Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose).
Suitable for vegans
Magnesium is an essential cofactor for more than 300 enzymes and is necessary for the biochemical functioning of many metabolic pathways (4). It is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body with over 50% found in bone and the rest in body tissue and organs. Only around 1% is in blood serum and the concentration of this is carefully monitored (5). Magnesium concentrations are managed by the intestines, bones, and kidneys and between 24-76% of ingested magnesium is absorbed in the gut while the rest is excreted (6).
One of the most important uses of magnesium in the body is during glycolysis and mitochondrial synthesis of ATP where magnesium ions work as a cofactor to glycolytic enzymes including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and pyruvate kinase (7). Similarly, it helps in the synthesis of heme in haemoglobin. Delta-aminolevulinate synthase requires magnesium, glycine, succinyl CoA and P5P and is involved with the first step in the synthesis of porphobilinogen, a precursor of heme in haemoglobin. Magnesium is also needed for phospholipid synthesis and the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases in RNA and DNA. The synthesis of flavin nucleotides and for the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides.
Subclinical magnesium deficiency is a widespread problem among the general population. Early deficiency symptoms can include loss of appetite, nausea, fatigue, and weakness however prolonged magnesium deficiency may result in seizures, heart arrythmia and coronary spasms. If mineral homeostasis is disrupted, hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia can occur (7).
Magnesium is essential to bone health and helps aid in the formation of bones. With more than 50% of the body’s magnesium stores found there, it plays an important role in the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Magnesium also affects parathyroid hormone and vitamin D concentrations, both of which are important regulators of bone health (1). According to American Bone Health, people who consume more magnesium tend to have a greater bone mineral density, which helps reduce the risk of fractures and osteoporosis (8). Likewise, studies suggest that magnesium deficiency can cause osteoporosis by directly influencing crystal formation, bone cells and the secretion of parathyroid hormone (9). Magnesium therefore has a huge impact on the prevention of bone loss and osteoporosis.
Magnesium helps to regulate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the brain which are responsible for memory formation and learning. Excess glutamate activity causes the cells to become overstimulated leading to apoptosis. This can be linked to several neurological and psychiatric diseases as well as anxiety and depression. Magnesium helps inhibit glutamate in the NMDA receptors, preventing cellular damage and may therefore play a role in the prevention of depression (10). Further research has also found a link between low magnesium levels and depression in younger adults (11, 12) and the beneficial role magnesium supplementation can have in the treatment of mild-moderate depression (13).
Magnesium is said to be an effective, well tolerated, and inexpensive option as a preventive and treatment for migraines (14). Research suggests that those with lower levels of serum and tissue magnesium are more likely to experience migraine headaches than those with higher levels (1). Likewise, the National Headache Foundation have proposed that magnesium may be effective for migraines and suggest that 600mg magnesium to be an efficient strategy in treating migraines (15), however, please discuss with your healthcare practitioner beforehand to get the correct dosage for you.
Type 2 Diabetes
Magnesium plays an important role in assisting enzymes that manage insulin and carbohydrate metabolism. Studies show that low dietary intake of magnesium is directly associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (2). Similarly, those with lower magnesium levels are more likely to have poor blood sugar regulation than those with higher levels (16). A review of 26 studies found that those consuming higher amounts of magnesium daily had a 22% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those consuming lower amounts (16). This highlights the importance of magnesium in those looking to regulate blood sugar levels and manage and/or reduce the risk of diabetes.
Magnesium is essential in maintaining cardiovascular health. It helps to regulate blood pressure by increasing the production of nitric oxide which helps relax the cells that line your blood vessels, decreasing the risk of developing hypertension (17). Secondly, it helps to prevent irregular heartbeats by regulating calcium and potassium levels in the heart muscle. A review into the prevention of cardiovascular disease found that not only does inadequate magnesium levels increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease but it is also directly associated with atrial fibrillation (18). Moreover, a further review into magnesium and cardiovascular disease found that high magnesium intake was directly linked to a lower cardiovascular disease risk factors such as stroke and metabolic syndrome as well as cardiovascular diseases such as ischemic heart disease and coronary heart disease (19).
While unlikely, excess magnesium especially in those with impaired renal function or kidney disease may be toxic (1).
Drug interactions- Tetracyclines antibiotics, such as demeclocycline and doxycycline, as well as quinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin can form insoluble complexes when combined with magnesium so magnesium supplements should be taken a few hours apart. Oral bisphosphonates, such as alendronate and magnesium should be taken at separate times as absorption rates may decrease. Loop diuretics, such as furosemide and bumetanide and thiazide diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide and ethacrynic acid can increase magnesium excretion whereas potassium-sparing diuretics, such as amiloride and spironolactone may limit magnesium loss. When taken for an extended period, proton pump inhibitor drugs, such as esomeprazole magnesium and lansoprazole may cause hypomagnesemia (1). Likewise, magnesium may interfere with the absorption of digoxin reducing its effectivity so if on any of these prescription medications, please consult your health care practitioner before using this product.
Packaging: Postal pack of 60 capsules
Recommended daily dose, 1 serving taken with a meal.
Serving size: 1 capsule, Servings per container: 60
Store in a cool dry place out of reach and sight of children. Once opened, consume within 6 months.
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