Acetyl CoA is the active co-enzyme of Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) and is a highly unstable compound in its natural form so our aim was to supply all the necessary raw materials for the normal body biochemistry to be able to synthesis the compound in vivo. This involved a blend of Pantothenic acid and the amino acid beta Alanine which naturally metabolises to Acetyl CoA in the body. Acetyl CoA has important functions in the body to include detoxification and acetylcholine synthesis.
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid
Vitamin B5, also called Pantothenic acid*, belongs to the group of water-soluble B vitamins. Its name originates from the Greek word pantos, meaning ‘everywhere’. The richest vitamin B5 sources are yeast and organ meats (liver, kidney, heart, brain); although eggs, milk, vegetables, legumes and wholegrain cereals are more common sources. An adequate supply of Vitamin B5** is important as it helps the body to:
• Convert food into glucose, used to produce energy
• Break down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins for energy generation
• Synthesize cholesterol
• Form red blood cells, as well as sex and stress-related hormones
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which provides scientific advice to assist policy makers, has confirmed that clear health benefits have been established for the dietary intake of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) in contributing to: Normal energy-yielding metabolism Normal mental performance Normal synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones, vitamin D and some neurotransmitters The reduction of tiredness and fatigue Since Vitamin B5 occurs to some extent in all foods, it’s generally assumed that deficiency is extremely rare. The truth is it probably happens in conjunction with deficiencies in other B vitamins.
The active co-enzymes of Pantothenic acid are Co-enzyme A (CoA) and Acetyl Co-enzyme A (AcetylCoA). AcetylCoA is formed from pyruvate as it passes through the mitochondrial membrane as the substrate in the Kreb’s cycle. It can also be formed from the transamination and decarboxylation of beta Alanine.
Groups at risk of deficiency are alcoholics, women on oral contraceptives, people with insufficient food intake (the elderly, post-operative), and people with impaired absorption (due to certain intestinal diseases).***Enzymes requiring Coenzyme A****
1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase
2. α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
3. Carnitine acyltransferase
4. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in the mitochondria
5. Choline acetyltransferase
6. Acetyl-CoA Glucosamine-6-phosphate transferase
7. Acetyl-CoA-Sphingosine phosphorylcholine transferase (making sphingosine)
8. Acetyl-CoA-Sphingosine transferase (ceramides to cerebrosides and gangliosides
9. Acetyltransferase enzymes in phase ll liver detoxification.
Deficiency symptoms***** Burning foot syndrome, anorexia, indigestion, abdominal pain, respiratory infections, neuritis, cramps, tenderness of the heel, insomnia, fatigue, depression, psychoses, headaches, tachycardia and hypotension. Sources Avocados • Beans and peas • Broccoli • Eggs • Milk • Mushrooms •
Poultry • Seafood • Sweet potatoes • Whole grains • Yogurt
FDA Daily Value (RDA)
“Role of Nutrition in Health and Disease” by W.E. Cornatzer, Pub
Thomas. Page 329*, 331**, 338***, 331****, 338*****